What does in chemico mean?

In chemico research is based on the chemical and physiological properties of a certain substance/product. This information can be used, for example, to predict the activity or toxicity of certain substances/products (e.g. in the development of new medicines). A more concrete example is the ‘Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay‘(DPRA) to evaluate the potential of a component to induce skin sensitization.

What is an in silico method?

In silico methods are based upon computer simulations. By using mathematical models, the properties and behavior of certain molecules and/or components are predicted. A typical example is a '(quantitative) structure-activity relationship [(Q)SAR]' model.

What is the difference between in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo methods?

  • In vivo research refers to studies on living organisms in which both animals (an animal experiment) and humans (a clinical study) can be used. The main advantage of in vivo research is that the collected information applies to the general effects on the entire organism and not just on one specific level (cell/tissue/organ).
  • In vitro methods are performed in a controlled environment such as a Petri dish. A typical example are methods that involve the use liver-specific cell lines (e.g. primary human hepatocytes) to investigate the effects of future medicines.
  • Ex vivo research is situated between in vivo and in vitro research. The best-known examples are methods that make use of tissue slices or organs from deceased animals (e.g. originating from slaughterhouse waste).

What does IATA mean?

When using an IATA or ‘Integrated Approach to Testing and Assessment’, a combination of different NAMs [e.g. (Q)SARs, in chemico, in vitro, ex vivo,...] is used to investigate a certain hypothesis. An example is the combination of QSAR predictions with data from in vitro research to predict the safety of certain substances or components.

What is Read-across?

In read-across, the properties of a given substance are predicted by using data from substances with similar structures.


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